Day 1—Hosea 10
Day 2—Hosea 11
Day 3—Hosea 12
Day 4—Hosea 13
Day 5—Hosea 14
Hosea in the New Testament
Hosea is one of the most often quoted Minor Prophet books!
· Matthew 2:15 (Hosea 11:1)—Jesus is on every page of the Bible, if we are looking for Him.
· Matthew 9:13; 12:7 (Hosea 6:6)
· Luke 23:30 (Hosea 10:8)—Judgment is coming, and there is no escaping the Day of the Lord. It is a day of expectation and hope for the faithful, and a day of dread and calamity for the unfaithful.
· Romans 9:25, 26 (Hosea 1:10)
· 1 Corinthians 15:55 (Hosea 13:14)
· 1 Peter 2:9-10 (Hosea 1:10-2:1, 2:23)
The Bride and Groom: God and His People
God loves His people, chose them, and called them out of Egypt. Throughout the Old Testament, Israel is referred to as His bride. Unfortunately, we also see His people rebel against Him and serve other Gods (commit adultery). He warns of judgment, and calls them to repentance.
In my opinion, the climax of this metaphor is found in Chapters 13-14. It contains some of the harshest words of judgment, but also some of the most hopeful words of future restoration and consummation.
The allusion to the people of God being His bride is used heavily in the New Testament with Christ and the Church. 2 Corinthians 11:2 uses similar terminology to Hosea; and Ephesians 5 and Revelation 19 also come to mind. I believe it is this metaphor that we should take with us above all else from the book of Hosea. We are the Bride of Christ. Let us be faithful to Him as a holy wife!
Day 1—Hosea 5
Day 2—Hosea 6
Day 3—Hosea 7
Day 4—Hosea 8
Day 5—Hosea 9
We have attempted to read through the prophets in a logical and orderly way. Jonah and Nahum are both prophesies to Nineveh, though over 100 years apart. Joel is likely the earliest of the Minor Prophets, but has an unknown date. Obadiah is likely much later (after the captivity), but is written to Edom at an unknown date. Starting with Amos and Hosea we are following (basically) the chronological order, and each of these books were primarily written to Israel. To see how these books "fit" together, consult the charts below! -RAM
The Prophets (Dates and Audiences)
The Minor Prophets
Beginning in830 (early date)
585-553 (late date)
The Writing Prophets
Assyrian Captivity of Samaria/Israel (722)
Babylonian Captivity of Jerusalem/Judah (586)
Babylonian Captivity of Edom (553)
Lamentation (Jeremiah) (586)
To the Jews in Babylon:
To the Remnant:
Charts Charts Adapted from Chris Reeves
Day 1—Hosea 1
Day 2—Hosea 2:1-13
Day 3—Hosea 2:14-23
Day 4—Hosea 3:1-4:10
Day 5—Hosea 4:11-19
· Written primarily to Israel from *755-710.
· 2 Kings 14-17; 2 Chronicles 26-29
· Contemporary with Amos and Isaiah. Amos’ emphasis is the need for justice and righteousness; Hosea’s emphasis is God’s loving-kindness and mercyon His people despite their disobedience; and Isaiah’s emphasis is for the people to have a right relationship with God by humbling themselves to His will.
Kings of Israel listed:
1. Jeroboam II (793-753—King during Israel’s “Indian Summer” before its decline and fall)
Kings of Judah listed:
1. Uzziah (792-740)
2. Jotham (750-732)
3. Ahaz (735-716)
4. Hezekiah (716-687)
· Hosea and Amos both began prophesying during a period of some prosperity, concluding during the reign of the good king Hezekiah. Although both the Northern and Southern kingdoms experienced this commercial success during most of his time as a prophet—it was also a period of fear of invasion and social/moral corruption. During this time the Northern kingdom of Israel was taken into Assyrian captivity and the Sothern Kingdom of Judah was invaded by Assyria who destroyed many cities and laid siege to Jerusalem.
I. Israel’s Adultery (Chapters 1-3)
II. Prophetic Discourses (Chapters 4-13)
III. Conversion, Salvation and Pardon (Chapter 14)
1. Jezreel, Lo-Rahamah, and Lo-Ammi (v4, 6, 9)
2. She will chase he lovers, but not overtake them (v7)
3. Love a woman who is loved by a husband (v1)
4. For the Lord brings a charge…my people are destroyed for lack of knowledge (v1, 6)
5. Blow the ram’s horn in Gibeah (v 8)
6. I desire faithfulness and not sacrifice (v6)
7. Ephraim is a cake unturned (v8)
8. They sow the wind, and reap the whirlwind (v7)
9. My God will cast them away, because they did not obey Him (v17)
10. The idol also shall be carried to Assyria (v6)
11. Out of Egypt I have called My son (v1)
12. The Lord brings a charge against Judah (v2)
13. O Israel, you are destroyed, but your help is from Me (v9)
14. Return to the Lord…I will love them (v1, 4)
Portrait of a Theme: Compassion
Day 1—Amos 5:16-27
Day 2—Amos 6
Day 3—Amos 7
Day 4—Amos 8
Day 5—Amos 9
Eight Common Themes in the Minor Prophets:
(The Prophetic Paradigm)
1. Revelation—God spoke TO and THROUGH the prophets. Though we see the personalities and styles of the different writers, ultimately God is the author of these books and all things. (Hosea 1:1, 2; 4:1; Amos 1:1-2; 3:3-8)
2. Election—God chose Israel out of all the nations of the earth to fulfill His purposes and plans. This was a great blessing, but along with the blessing was added responsibility and expectations from God. God gave them much, and He expected much out of them. (Hosea 11:1; Amos 3:1-2)
3. Rebellion—The people of Israel often forgot that the Mosaic covenant, and all of its blessings, was conditional. Furthermore, attached to this covenant was not just blessing for faithfulness but curses for unfaithfulness. When the people turned away from God in rebellion, they broke this covenant—and faced the curses contained therein. (Hosea 11:2; Amos 2:4)
4. Judgment—If God’s people turn away from Him in rebellion, God’s justice and righteousness require that He judge and punish His people for their sins. This is the backbone of the Minor Prophets: “Judgment is coming—REPENT!” (Hosea 9:1-3; Amos 4:2-3)
5. Repentance—Hand and hand with judgment, the call to repentance is perhaps the most common element of the prophets of the Old Testament. This call wasn’t always received well or properly acted upon, but God always gave His people ample opportunity to “turn and live!” (Hosea 6:1-3; 10:12; Amos 15:14-15)
6. Compassion—Even as God is sending judgment, He does not want His people to lose all hope! He is still a compassionate, longsuffering, loving God—abundant in mercy and grace. This picture is often lost in the Old Testament, and we are told by many in the world that the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob was a mean and petty God. Nothing could be farther from the Truth, and the prophets reveal this to us. (Hosea 11:8; Amos 7:2-3, 5-6; 5:25-27)
7. Redemption—If the people repent, restoration is promised. This theme especially comes into play with the “Righteous Remnant.” The prophets tell us, “Become or remain faithful, and you will be rewarded.” (Hosea 14:4-7; Amos 15:5; 9:11-15)
8. Consummation—The final theme is closely connected to, and flows from redemption and compassion. Many think only of future events when they think of the prophets: fulfillment in the end of time or fulfillment in modern days. Sadly, it only adds to our confusion if we try to use these books as a means to speculate on the unrevealed. However, the prophets distinctly carry the idea that history is going somewhere; that in the “fullness of time” God will complete His work. This theme primarily focuses on what God is going to accomplish in the Kingdom and through the King: Jesus Christ. (Hosea 1:10; Micah 4:1-3; Amos 9:11-12)
Day 1 - 1:1-4
Day 2 - 1:5-9
Day 3 - 1:10-11
Day 4 - 1:12-16
Day 5 - 1:17-21
This might be a great read for WARRING SIBLINGS at home!
Obadiah: “Yahweh’s Slave”
Written to Edom at an unknown date (most likely after 586* and the fall of Judah)
Conflict between Jacob (Judah) and Esau (Edom): Genesis 25:21-34; 27; 32-33; Numbers 20:14-21; 1 Samuel 14:47; 1 Kings 11:14-22; 1 Chronicles 18:12-13; 2 Chron. 21:1-10; 2 Chron. 25:5-13; Isaiah 34:5
Prophetic Judgment pronounced against Edom: Jeremiah 49:7-22; Lamentations 4:21-22; Ezekiel 25:12-14, 35:1-15
From about 734 until the fall of Jerusalem (in 586), Edom was under Assyrian control. This was a time of prosperity for the nation, despite their position as a vassal state. Upon the fall of Assyria, however, Edom was faced with the choice to align themselves with the Babylonians or their neighbors to the Northeast and distant kinsmen, Judah. Though Obadiah indicates that they should have helped their “brother,” instead they participated in Judah’s demise. Their victory would be short-lived, however, because Edom would also fall to Babylon in 553, as prophesied in Obadiah and confirmed in the Nabonidus Chronicle—an ancient history of the Babylonian empire.
I. The Announcement of Judgment against Edom (v1-9)
II. The Day of the Lord (v10-16)
III. Judah’s Final Exaltation (v17-21)
1. Though you set your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down (v4)
Portrait of a Theme: Rebellion
Day 1—Joel 1:1-14
Day 2—Joel 1:15-2:11
Day 3—Joel 2:12-27
Day 4—Joel 2:28-3:8
Day 5—Joel 3:9-21
Joel: “The LORD is God”
Written primarily to Judah and Jerusalem at an unknown date (most likely either about 830* during the early part of the reign of Joash king of Judah or after the return from exile and the completion of the temple from the late 500s to 400s).
Early Date (Pre-Exilic):
· 2 Kings 11-12; 2 Chronicles 22
Late Date (Post-Exilic):
· Haggai, Zechariah
· Deuteronomy 27-30 (the blessings and curses of the covenant)
Kings of Judah or Israel listed: None.
· There are some common elements to the political climate during the writing of Joel’s prophecy to be considered, whichever date a student chooses to follow. There is no mention of a reigning king. Instead, the elders (1:2), the nation at large (1:2, 8), and especially the priests (1:13-14) are called to restore a right relationship with God through repentance. In addition, very little is mentioned in the prophecy of rebellion—in fact, drunkenness is the only specific sin mentioned (perhaps even metaphorically), while idolatry, vain worship, foreign alliances and the like are not considered. Whatever the rebellion, Joel seems confident in the tender hearts of the people to turn to the Lord in the repentance when faced with the great and powerful judgment of God—matching the attitude of the nation in the days following Haggai and Zechariah and in the early days of Joash the King!
I. The “Day of the Lord” for Judah; the Prophet’s Call to Repentance (Chapter 1:1-2:17)
A. Judgment in famine and pestilence: the locust invasion (Chapter 1)
B. Future judgment in military conquest: the invading army from the North (Chapter 2:1-17)
II. The “Day of the Lord” for the Nations; the Promise of Blessings for a Faithful Judah (Ch. 2:18-3:21)
1. What the (locust) left, the (locust) has eaten. (v4)
2. The day of the Lord is coming…So rend your heart, and not your garments. (v1, 12)
3. Beat your plowshares into swords And your pruning hooks into spears (v10)
Portrait of a Theme: Repentance
Written to Nineveh from *663-612.
Genesis 10:11; Jonah; 2 Kings 23
No Kings of Judah listed
A hundred years earlier the city of Nineveh had repented by the preaching of Jonah, but now Nahum proclaims the fall of the same city. The Assyrians had forgotten how the Lord had relented from destroying them and had once again returned to their evil ways. They had known God, but as a result of their backsliding they were completely destroyed. Assyria was a nation bent on world domination and suppression. Beginning with Tiglath-pileser III in about 750, Assyria began a systematic attempt at world conquest which included the destruction of Israel and the invasion of Judah. Sargon II finished the siege began by Shalmaneser V (or simply took credit for it upon his ascension to the thrown) and Samaria fell in 722. The next king, Sennacherib, conquered the Judean city of Lachish and boasted of shutting-up King Hezekiah “like a bird in a cage.” By 663, Assyria had taken Egypt with great effort and brutality. However, these long, extensive wars depleted the “native” Assyrian armies and their cruelty garnered no real loyalty on the part of their “allies” (who were only interested in the wealth Assyria, and especially Nineveh, had obtained through trade and conquest). Thus, the nation was ripe for a fall—a fall that came at the hands of the Chaldeans (Babylonians) in 612.
I. Nineveh’s Doom—by the decree of Yahweh (Ch. 1)
II. The Siege and destruction of Nineveh (Ch. 2)
III. The Justification of Nineveh’s Destruction: Her Sins (Ch. 3)
1. The LORD is slow to anger and great in power, And will not at all acquit the wicked. (v3)
2. For the LORD will restore the excellence of Jacob…though Nineveh of old was like a pool of water, Now they flee away. (v2, 8)
3. Are you better than No Amon (Thebes)? Yet she was carried away, she went into captivity. (v8, 10)
Portrait of a Theme: Judgment
Written primarily to Assyria (specifically Nineveh) from *790-750.
· 2 Kings 14:23-15:7 (see especially 14:23-25); 2 Chronicles 26; Matthew 12:39-41; Luke 11:29-32
· Contemporary with Hosea, Isaiah and Amos. Along with Nahum, Jonah is one of two prophets to bring a message of judgment and fall against Nineveh, the capital of the kingdom of Assyria.
Kings of Israel during this time:
1. Jeroboam II (793-753—King during Israel’s “Indian Summer” before its decline and fall)
During this time the nation of Assyria was in the midst of a 40 year period where the national circumstances were the poorest experienced since its rise to the mightiest nation on earth. They were weakened by war on multiple fronts, widespread famine and disease, revolts among their conquered nations, strife among their leaders, and the gradual concession of lands that had once belonged to smaller nations (including large portions of Syria that went back to the control of Israel, swelling her northern border to a size not seen since the days of David and Solomon). Also, there was a notable solar eclipse in 763. The depressed conditions and events of nature made the nation ripe for repentance when faced with God’s message of judgment through Jonah.
Outline (taken from George L. Robinson, The Twelve Minor Prophets):
I. Jonah’s Disobedience: Running Away from God (Chapter 1)
II. Jonah’s Prayer: Running to God (Chapter 2)
III. Jonah’s Preaching to Nineveh: Running with God (Chapter 3)
IV. Jonah’s Complaints: Running ahead of God (Chapter 4)
1. But Jonah arose to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the LORD… (v3)
2. Then Jonah prayed to the LORD his God from the fish’s belly (v1)
3. So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD (v3)
4. But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he became angry (v1)
Portrait of a Theme: Repentance (3:5-10)